|Allergen Data Collection:
Beef (Bos domesticus)
|Authors in alphabetical order [contact
The prevalence of beef allergy is between 3% and 6.5% among children
with atopic dermatitis and can be up to 20% in cow's milk allergic children.
Several studies reported an incidence of 1-2% of food-induced anaphylactic
reactions caused by ingestion of beef. In another study an even higher
figure of 9% of anaphylactic events from foods were induced by beef.
The diagnosis of beef allergy is based on a thorough case history supported by skin prick tests, specific serum IgE, and reactions could be confirmed by oral challenge procedures, when anaphylactic reactions are not expected.
Several muscle and serum proteins have been identified as beef allergens. Bovine serum albumin and gamma globulins (mainly immunoglobulin G / bovine IgG), as well as the muscle proteins actin and less frequently myoglobin and tropomyosin were described as IgE-binding proteins. The major beef allergens are bovine serum albumin and bovine IgG. Both allergens have been implicated in cross-reactivities to other bovine products such as milk and to other mammalian meats. Therefore, including alternative meats in the diet of beef-allergic patients must be carefully evaluated on an individual basis. Treatments such as heating, freeze-drying, homogenization and mincing are capable of reducing the allergenicity of beef.
This review presents data on prevalence, symptoms, and cross- reacting allergens of beef in tabular form. The stability and sources of beef allergens are also summarized.
The reference lists of the Allergen Data Collections are based mainly on searches of Medline and FSTA (Food Science & Technology Abstracts) databases up to the related dates of publication. The scientific rigor of the studies listed is variable and not subject of critique or evaluation by the authors or the editor of the Allergen Data Collections. The reader should be aware of considerable problems in comparing data from different studies (eg. patient cohorts, diagnostic performances, possible flaws in allergen preparations and methodologies for allergen characterization) and is encouraged to review the original publications.
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