Allergen Data Collection: Rice (Oryza sativa)
Internet Symposium on Food Allergens 1(4):147-60 (1999) []
1 Prevalence of Rice Allergy
Country / Subjects Sensitivity to References
Finland, Helsinki
16 wheat sensitive children with atopic dermatitis
rice 69% (SPT) Varjonen et al. 1995
France, Pierre Benite
580 patients with adverse reactions to food
rice 17% (RAST) Andre et al. 1994
Japan, Okinawa
127 atopic patients (bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis)
rice 12% (MAST) Kosugi et al. 1992
Japan, Tokyo
39 children with positive food challenge
rice 8% Iwasaki et al. 1994
Switzerland, Zurich
402 food allergic adults
rice 0.7% Wüthrich 1993
312 asthmatic patients
rice pollen 9% (SPT), from which 35% were RAST positive Tsai et al. 1990
USA, Davis, CA
464 male rice farmers
probably rice: 6-9% prevalence of respiratory symptoms McCurdy et al. 1996
USA, Little Rock, AR
appr. 700 atopic patients
rice < 1% (food challenge) Helm & Burks 1996
USA, St. Louis, MO
a) 1196 cereal allergic adults
b) 118 cereal allergic children
a) rice 39% (SPT)
b) rice 6% (SPT)
Lewis & Imber 1975
148 respiratory-allergic children with reproduced symptoms after food challenge
rice 2% Ogle et al. 1980

2 Symptoms of Rice Allergy
Symptoms & Case Reports References
systemic reactions
exercise-incuced anaphylaxis (6, 7)

cutaneous symptoms
atopic dermatitis (3, 10), eczema (1, 2), contact urticaria (4), in general (3)

gastrointestinal symptoms
diarrhea (5), vomiting (5)

respiratory symptoms
asthma (1, 2, 4, 8)

other symptoms
atopic dermatitis with ocular complications (10), food protein- induced enterocolitis syndrome (9) 

(1) Hoffman 1975
(2) Shibasaki et al. 1979
(3) Ikzewa et al. 1992b
(4) Lezaun et al. 1994
(5) Cavataio et al. 1996
(6) Guinnepain et al. 1996
(7) Caffarelli et al. 1997
(8) Arai et al. 1998
(9) Sicherer et al. 1998
(10) Uchio et al. 1998

3 Diagnostic Features and Therapy
Parameters / Subjects Outcome References
Age of Patients
cereal allergic patients
Frequency of sensitivity to rice was six times higher in adults than in children (St. Louis, MO, USA) Lewis & Imber 1975
Age and RAST
rice allergic patients with atopic dermatitis
RAST positivity to rice was about 10% in up to 1-year-olds and reached the level of 30-50% after 2 years of age Ikzewa et al. 1992b
RAST and Clinical Relevance
a) 11 patients with overt symptoms from cereals
b) 15 patients without overt symptoms from cereals
Groups a) and b) could not be distinguished by rice or other cereal specific RAST scores Hoffman 1975
RAST and Clinical Relevance
184 rice, egg white or house dust mite allergic patients with atopic dermatitis
Correlation of clinical severity of atopic dermatitis and RAST score was the highest for rice allergens (0.52), (correlations for mites and egg white <0.15) Ikzewa et al. 1992b
IgE, Histamine, Leukotriene B4
patients with atopic dermatitis, a) 70 with ocular complications, b) 146 without ocular complications
Significantly higher specific IgE for rice and wheat in a) than in b),
Significantly elevated tear histamine and LTB4 levels in a) as compared to b) and controls
Uchio et al. 1998
Cytotoxic Leucocytes Test (CLT)
1824 CLTs with 23 food allergens
Rice one of 10 foods giving most often reactions in CLT Ruokonen 1981
Lymphocyte Stimulation
5 rice allergic patients
Rice globulin and 2 globulin fractions revealed lymphocyte- stimulating activity Shibasaki et al. 1979
PBMC Proliferation
2 rice pollen allergic patients
No significant differences between patients and controls in PBMC proliferation with rice pollen allergens Tsai et al. 1990
Isolated Rice Intolerance
4 children with isolated rice hypersensitivity
Symptoms: shock, vomiting, and diarrhea, occult blood in stools, immunologic tests negative;
No symptoms during 6 weeks of a diet free of rice and flour, successive double-blind challenges caused severe shock in 3 of 4 infants,  histologic alterations in intestinal mucosa after challenge
Cavataio et al. 1996
Elimination Diet
25 patients with atopic dermatitis (RAST positive to rice)
Rice elimination diet (mean duration of elimination: 5.2 months):
a) 36% showed improvement: rice and wheat specific RAST titers decreased
b) 40% mild improvement
c) 24% no improvement: total serum IgE and wheat specific RAST titers increased
Komatsu et al. 1990
Ikzewa et al. 1992b
Hypoallergenic Rice *
1 rice allergic patient with asthma
Patient has been eating hypoallergenic rice with no bronchial asthma-induced attack Arai et al. 1998
* see also Hypoallergenic Rice

4 Composition of Rice

5 Allergens of Rice
Seed Proteins / Glycoproteins Allergen Nomenclature References
14-16 kDa Rice Allergens   Matsuda et al. 1988
Urisu et al. 1991b
33-kDa Allergen   Nakase et al. 1998
60 kDa Allergen   Ikezewa et a. 1999
Major Allergens: 15.5, 16, 19 kDa   Urisu et al. 1991b
Major Allergens: 16, 25, 50, 90 kDa   Ikezawa et al. 1992a
Allergens: 12.5 and 28 kDa   Limas et al. 1990

Pollen Proteins / Glycoproteins Allergen Nomenclature References
Major Pollen Allergen (Group I)  Ory s 1 Xu et al. 1995
Allergens: 16, 26, and 32 kDa   Tsai et al. 1990

5.1 Sensitization to Rice Allergens
Country / Subjects Sensitivity to References
Japan, Gunma
5 rice allergic patients
Protein fractions:
glutelin in a) 100% and b) 0%
globulin in a) and b) 100%
(a) RAST, (b) Lymphocyte Stimulation Test
Shibasaki et al. 1979
Japan, Tokyo
10 rice allergic patients with atopic dermatitis
Protein fractions:
water-soluble in 50%
salt-soluble in 90%
ethanol-soluble in 30%
acetic acid-soluble in 60%
residue in 30%
Watanabe et al. 1990a
Japan, Toyoake
31 rice allergic patients
16 kDa allergen in 100%
Urisu et al. 1991a
Japan, Toyoake
32 rice allergic patients
19 kDa allergen in 56%
16 kDa allergen in 69%
15.5 kDa allergen in 97%
15-, 25-, 33-, 35-, 38-, 56- and 92-kDa allergens in 25-44%
32- and 40-kDa allergens in 13%
24-, 31-, 43-, 53-, 65-, 68-, 78-, 82- and 90-kDa allergens in <10%
(SDS-PAGE / immunoblot)
Urisu et al. 1991b
Japan, Yokohama
15 rice allergic patients with atopic dermatitis
60 kDa allergen in 7% (1 patient)
(SDS-PAGE / immunoblot)
Ikezewa et a. 1999
Spain, Madrid
4 cereal allergic patients
12.5 and 28 kDa allergen detected by pooled serum
(SDS-PAGE / immunoblot)
Limas et al. 1990

5.2 14-16 kDa Rice Allergens
5.3 Major Pollen Allergen (Grass Group I)

6 Isolation & Preparation
Extract / Purified Allergens Methods References
Proteins Defatted rice grain powder extraction with NaCl / NaHCO3 buffer (pH 8.0, containing phenol) at RT for 48h; centrifugation, dialysis, lyophylization, storage at 4°C Urisu et al. 1991b
Albumin, globulin, prolamin and glutelin fractions Subsequent extration: water, salt, ethanol, acetic acid, salt/ethanol, alkali solutions; Extraction of rice powder for 4 h at RT, centrifugation, dialysis and lyophylization of supernatant, extraction of insoluble residues with similar procedure Watanabe et al. 1990a
Globulin and glutelin fractions Extraction of defatted rice flour with salt solution; a) supernatant: ammonium sulfate precipitation of globulin fraction; separation of 3 globulin fractions by SEC (Sephadex G-200)
b) precipitate: washing and extraction of glutelin fraction with alkali solution
Shibasaki et al. 1979
Globulins (10 proteins) Extraction of ground and defatted rice endosperm with 0.5M-NaCl, precipitation with trichloroacetic acid, fractionation with ammonium bicarbonate and ammonium bicarbonate / ethanol buffers, purification of total NaCl- and fractionated extracts by RP-HPLC Limas et al. 1990
16 kDa allergen Extraction of defatted rice grain powder with salt solution, ammonium sulfate precipitation of the supernatant, dialysis and lyophylization;  IEC (DEAE cellulose) purification twice followed by SEC (Sephadex G-50) Matsuda et al. 1988
Urisu et al. 1991b
14-16 kDa allergens Sonication extraction of dehulled rice with salt solution, ammonium sulfate precipitation of the supernatant and dialysis; fractionation and purification of 5 proteins by IEC (DEAE cellulose) followed by RP-HPLC Nakase et al. 1996

7 Cross-Reactivities
Cross-Reacting Allergens Subjects / Methods References
a) cereals (wheat, corn, oats )
b) rye grass pollen (group I)
Association of rice- and corn- specific IgE in 200 patients* (RAST)
Differential cross- reactivities between all cereals (RAST inhibition)
Hoffman 1975
a) 5 cereals (wheat, rye, corn, oats)*
b) grass pollen *
Correlation of skin reactivities between rice and
a) corn 50%, rye 41%, wheat 38%, and oats 35% (SPT)*
b) grass pollen (SPT)*
Lewis & Imber 1975
Rice Protein Fractions
Glutelin and globulin fractions
1 rice allergic patient, allergenic potency: globulin > glutelin (RAST inhibition) Shibasaki et al. 1979
12 cereals (wheat, durum wheat, triticale, cereal rye, barley, rye grass, oats, canary grass, rice, maize, sorghum and Johnson grass)
4 asthmatic bakers (RAST, RAST inhibition) Baldo et al. 1980
Rice Allergen (16 kDa)
5 cereals (wheat, corn, Japanese and Italian millet) 
6 rice allergic patients: Significant correlation of RAST values between protein extracts of all 5 cereals and between 16 kDa rice allergen and Italian millet *,
Decrease of IgE-binding to all 5 cereals by 16 kDa rice allergen and vice versa
(RAST, RAST inhibition)
Urisu et al. 1991b
wheat, soybean *
188 and 308 patients with atopic dermatitis: Close correlation between rice and wheat (0.78), and rice and soybean  (0.65) (RAST) Ikzewa et al. 1992b
wheat, barley *
Cluster analysis, 161 asthmatic children: wheat, barley and rice *
(20 inhalants and 15 foods allergens, MAST)
Iwasaki & Baba 1992
a) 23 buckwheat-sensitive subjects,
b) 30 buckwheat-tolerant subjects with buckwheat and rice specific IgE
Significant correlation between rice and buckwheat specific RAST values in b), but not in a),
Heterogenous (rice / buckwheat) RAST inhibition significantly lower than homologous (rice / rice, buckwheat / buckwheat) inhibition in a), no significant differences in b),
Conclusion: common allergens from rice and buckwheat in a) and b), buckwheat specific allergens in a)
(RAST, RAST inhibition)
Yamada et al. 1995
corn, soybean, and peanut
123 soybean, corn, rice, and peanut allergic patients:
Significant RAST correlations between rice and corn (r=0.95) and rice and soybean (r=0.81),
Significant inhibition of IgE- binding to rice by corn and peanut, and to corn and soybean by rice (RAST inhibition)
Lehrer et al. 1999
Rice Pollen
Ory s 1, Lol p 1 from rye grass
Grass pollen allergic patients: Almost complete inhibition of IgE- binding to crude rice pollen extract by Ory s 1 and Lol p 1 Xu et al. 1995
*  multiple sensitization (not proved by  inhibition-tests)

8 Stability of Rice Allergens
Treatment Effects References
Rice Seeds, Rice Powder
enzymic digestion with a) actinase and papain, b) actinase / surfactant (glycerin mono- oleate)
a) Rice seeds: reduction of RAST values to 22% (actinase) and 76% (papain) of non- treated rice
Rice powder: reduction of RAST values to < 0.34 PRU/mL (actinase) and to 31% of non- treated rice (1 rice allergic patient)
b) Rice seeds: reduction of RAST values to < 0.34 PRU/mL in 6 of 8 rice allergic patients
Watanabe et al. 1990a
heat a) 60°C for 1 h, b) 100°C for 2 min, c) 100°C for 10 min
RAST activities of globulin fractions were reduced to 51-74% (RAST)
Lymphocyte-stimulating activities of treatments a) and b) were enhanced up to 6 times of native activities
Shibasaki et al. 1979
enzymic digestion with actinase, papain, alpha- chymotrypsin, trypsin, pepsin, and pancreatin
RAST value for actinase treated rice < 0.34 PRU/mL, RAST activity reduced  to > 50% by papain digestion, unchanged RAST for other enzymes (RAST, 1 rice allergic patient) Watanabe et al. 1990a
heat a) 60°C for 1 h, b) 100°C for 2 min, c) 100°C for 10 min
RAST activities of glutelin fractions were reduced to 44-60% (RAST)
Lymphocyte-stimulating activities of heated glutelins: no significant changes
Shibasaki et al. 1979

9 Allergen Sources
Reported Adverse Reactions References
Food / Food additives
Symptoms after ingestion of cooked rice (1)
(1) see Symptoms of Rice Allergy

Reported Safe Products References
Food see Hypoallergenic Rice
Topical oat and rice colloidal grain suspensions used as adjuncts in bath therapies were evaluated for the treatment of atopic dermatitis: neither immediate urticarial nor allergic reactions occurred in any of 65 atopic or nonatopic children (Skin Patch Test), although 23% of atopic children were RAST positive (1)
(1) Pigatto et al. 1997

Associated Factors References
Rice Burning
Rice burn acreage was shown to have a small statistically significant effect on asthma morbidity in Butte County, USA  (1)
(1) Jacobs et al. 1997


10 Hypoallergenic Rice
Products Evaluation Methods References
Alkali Hydrolyzed Rice
Hypoallergenic rice (AFT-R 1) produced by alkali treatment, 15 rice allergic patients with severe atopic dermatitis
Reduction of major allergenic protein to less than 1/6400 (EAST)
Clinical trial: Evaluated as useful in 93% of patients, 
Patient for whom AFT-R 1 was not useful: 60 kDa allergen detected in AFT-R 1 (SDS-PAGE immunoblotting)
Ikezawa et al. 1999
Enzyme Hydrolyzed Rice
Hypoallergenic rice produced by 2-stage enzymatic process, hydrolysis of salt soluble allergenic proteins by actinase in the presence of a surfactant, washing and colour improvement by treatment with  diluted hydrochloric acid, washing with water and steaming
Hypoallergenic rice gave low specific RAST values and was clinically administered  to 7 rice allergic patients with atopic dermatitis, no allergic reactions were observed in 6 of 7 Watanabe et al. 1990a, b
Watanabe 1993
Enzyme Hydrolyzed Rice
Hypoallergenic rice (HRS-1) produced by enzymatic digestion (actinase and surfactant treatment), reduced content of salt- soluble globulin fraction, 44 patients with severe atopic dermatitis
Elimination of rice and wheat from daily diet, replacement with hypoallergenic rice (5.6 weeks on average):
In 74% "moderate" to "remarkable" improvement,
in 53% "moderate" to "remarkable" reduction in  steroid ointment concomitantly used for the treatment (1, 2)
Provocation test with regular rice in 5 of 44 subjects following the HRS-1 therapy: obvious increase in severity of symptoms in all 5 cases (2)
(1) Ikezawa et al. 1991
(2) Ikezawa et al. 1992a
Enzyme Hydrolyzed Rice
Hypoallergenic rice enzymatically (proteinase) processed, 40 patients with rice- associated  atopic dermatitis
Hypoallergenic rice gave low specific RAST values and was effective in treatment of patients,
Palatability  and  nutritive value similar to non- treated rice
Arai 1993
Hyperpressured Rice
Hypoallergenic rice: 95% of albumin and globulin were taken off by hyperpressure method
7 children with atopic dermatitis and rice specific RAST > 1:
After introduction of hypoallergenic rice for 4 weeks skin reactions improved in all patients;
Stimulation Index by rice albumin and globulin decreased to max.  22-97% (mean 71%) and  33-97% (mean 73%) (CAST)
Juji et al. 1999
Transgenic Rice 
Repression of 14-16 kDa allergen expression in rice seeds by antisense RNA strategy
Appr. 1/5 lower allergen content in transgenic cultivars as estimated using 16-kDa allergen specific mAb (ELISA, immunoblotting) Matsuda et al. 1996
Nakamura & Matsuda 1996
Tada et al. 1996

11 References

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