Internet Symposium on Food Allergens 1(3): 103-119 (1999)

Allergen Data Collection:
Apple(Malus domestica)
refer to latest update

While the prevalence of apple allergy in food allergic patients is generally below 2 %, apple allergy is most frequently associated with birch pollinosis in Northern Europe and North America.  40 to 90 % of birch pollen allergic patients are sensitized to this fruit. Apple is known as one of the major foods involved in so-called "Oral Allergy Syndrome", which presents IgE-mediated symptoms occurring mainly at the mucosa of lips, tongue and throat after ingestion of apples and other fruits. Systemic reactions including anaphylaxis occur more often in apple allergic patients without related pollinosis. The present data collection reviews detailed information on prevalence and symptoms of apple allergy as well as cross-reactivities, molecular biological and allergenic properties of the major apple allergens, and allergenic potencies of different varieties and ripening stages of apples in tabular form. The allergens are unstable to conventional processing of the fruits like canning, pulping or heating, therefore adverse reactions occur almost exclusively after ingestion of fresh fruits. Due to the labile nature of apple allergens the diagnostic accuracy is highly dependent on the quality of extracts used in testing procedures. Cross-reactive inhalant allergens are tree pollen (predominantly birch) and to a lesser degree mugwort and grass pollen.  The major pollen-associated apple allergen is the Bet v 1 homolog protein Mal d 1. Besides Mal d 1, a 31-kDa allergen was highly prevalent in patients with associated tree pollen allergy. Proteins with Mr about 34 kDa and 60 kDa and a profilin homolog allergen are proven to be cross-reactive to pollens. The major allergen in a patient population without pollinosis is the lipid-transfer protein Mal d 3, which is suggested to be cross-reactive to homolog proteins in peach and pear.
1 Prevalence of Apple Allergy
2 Symptoms of Apple Allergy
3 Diagnostic Features of Apple Allergy
4 Composition of Apple
5 Allergens of Apple
5.1 Sensitization to Apple Allergens
5.2 Bet-v-1-homologue Protein (Mal d 1)
5.3 31-kDa-Allergen
5.4 Lipid-transfer Protein (Mal d 3)
6 Isolation & Preparation
7 Cross-Reactivities
8 Stability of Apple Allergens
9 Allergen Sources
10 Allergenicity of Different Apple Varieties
11 References

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